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Relevant overview of the placement machine

点击次数:0  信息来源:  发布时间:2018-12-19 12:42:27  【打印此页】  【关闭
In order to be able to in nowadays earned his place in the fierce market competition, electronic products, manufacturers must continually find a can lower the product cost and time of products into the market at the same time also can improve new product quality of the new road. Also need to improve manufacturing process and procedures, the electronic products manufacturers will also make the semiconductor device manufacturers more features into the size of miniaturization programmable integrated circuit (programmable integrated circuits PIC). So, for design and manufacture of high-end electronic products, take a size smaller, more powerful, and the price lower road show up clearly in front of us. Against this backdrop, today's programmable integrated circuit has a lot of pins, strong function, and the innovative form of assembly. But hope electronic products using the latest PIC device manufacturers must overcome some of the problems in the process of programming. Say simply, in order to be able to successfully for PCI device programming, need to learn some of the new method. Good luck to provide mainland JUKI SMT machine technical support.
Industry background
Generally used for PIC devices, ever DIP, PLCC, or SOIC package form. However, as people increase the demand for compact, high performance products, requires the introduction of more advanced PIC device. Today's flash memory device can be used in a SOP, TSOP, VSOP, BGA and microminiature BGA packaging forms. High-performance microcontroller and CPLD devices and the FPGA device can use until QFP, BGA and micro BGA packaging form, its own pin number range from 44 can reach more than 800.
Because a lot of pin number and the appearance of small size, most of these components can only take the form of encapsulation fine line. Fine pitch components have pin is very fragile, distance is only 0.508 mm (20 mils) or almost no gap. So that people will be concentrating on the PIC device used to deal with this challenge. PIC with high density and high performance price is very expensive, require the use of high quality programming equipment, need to have very good process control, in order to discard components to reduce to the smallest degree.
In the process of using manual programming operation, fine pitch components will actually suffered from sexual and other forms of coplanar pin the threat of damage factors. If the pin is damage, then could lead to the welding point reliability problems, will improve the defect rate in the process of manufacturing. Similarly, high density of components actually spend longer programming time, this will reduce the efficiency of production.
Programming on the circuit board
Advanced PIC devices users will face a difficult choice: is to run the risk of quality problems, use manual programming? Still looking for an alternative to other programming method, and then the method to eliminate the manual touch?
In order to achieve the latter, the manufacturers are initially adopted on board programming (on - board programming OBP). OBP is a simple way, it is to put the PIC posted to a printed circuit board (printed circuit board PCB) program later on. Normally conducted on circuit board test or function test. Flash, electronic can be cleared of programmable read-only Memory (Electrically Erasable ProgrammableRead read-only Memory block or EEprom) block, block based on the EEprom of the CPLD device, based on the EEprom of the FPGA device, and a built-in flash Memory block or EEprom micro controller, all of these components adopt OBP form programming.
In order to be able to meet the using demand of the flash memory and micro controller, the most commonly used method is when implementing OBP by needle plate fixture (bed - of - nails fixture), using the automatic test equipment (automatic test equipment ATE) programming. For logic devices programming is complex, is not suitable for use of ATE needle plate fixture for programming.
A new OBP technology based on IEEE standard original development can support testing, showing a promising future. This specification is called the IEEE 1149.1, it detailed rules on the boundary scan a series of agreements, has been used in many PIC programming method.
If electronics manufacturers to use the IEEE 1149.1 programming methods, they rely on tools of intellectual property rights (ipr) protection is provided by a variety of semiconductor manufacturers. But using their tools for programming is very slow. Also, because they are out of instinct to protect intellectual property rights, used by each tool is limited to a single user device. If a circuit board in the PIC on the device is used by multiple users, it will be a lot of defects.
To sum up, using OBP method can eliminate the manual operation device and programming into test, as well as the phenomenon of slow manufacturing. However, the time needed for programming could also be slow.
ATE needle disc programming
Initial use ATE equipment is used for online testing was carried out on the PCB components, in order to find such as line open circuit and short circuit, lack of components and components arrangement are not allowed to be produced by the defects in the manufacturing process, etc. Needle plate fixture is a kind of array configuration, flexible load test endpoint, it can working in PCB and ATE test equipment of signal circuit formed between a kind of mechanical and electrical connection interface.
Once the PCB reliably connected to the needle plate fixture well, ATE test equipment working signal circuit will be through the needle plate fixture and PCB, send the PIC above programming signal to the target device. In addition to the testing of mechanical defects, ATE equipment can also be used to PIC device programming operation. Programming and eliminate of the components are embedded into the circuit board test procedure, which is used to program on the target device.
The IEEE 1149.1 boundary scan programming
In order to improve the density and the complexity of the PCB components, circuit board and components of the test work is facing great difficulties, especially against space limit of PCB components. In order to be able to effectively solve this problem, a boundary scan test protocol (IEEE 1149.1) arises at the historic moment.
The IEEE 1149.1 standard can pass a test intelligent peripheral equipment, in the assembly of the circuit boards of programming logic devices or flash memory device. This equipment through standard Test Access Port programming Test Access Port (TAP) connected to the circuit board formation interface. All of these need to adopt the JTAG hardware control device, JTAG software system, compatible with the JTAG PCB circuit boards, and a four wire test access port.
Working implement boundary scan can adopt a professional special programming devices on printed circuit boards, or use an alternative solution, using GenRad, hewlett-packard, and by the United States Teradyne ATE testers and other companies to provide some of the tools, so can be realized in ATE test equipment on the IEEE 1149.1 boundary scan programming work.
The IEEE standard of one of the biggest advantages is that it can be on the same piece of PCB by different suppliers of various components of programming. This can reduce the whole programming time, simplify the manufacturing process.
Automatic programming (AP) equipment
PIC technology constantly moving forward, so the new equipment and automation programming technology has also kept the same pace. For example, the Data I/O 's ProMaster 970 fine line programming automation equipment to the use of advanced packaging forms of PIC device programming, including BGA, micro BGA, SOP, VSOP, TSOP, PLCC, SON and CSP. Double mount (Dual pick - and - place PNP) end and the selection of pluggable 8, 10 or 12 socket can improve equipment efficiency to a great extent. The programming device can also be further involve the quality control of the device. Coplanar, for example, sexuality and pins, in fact, there is not damage, because the integration with a laser vision system, so to make sure the pasted on very accurate device.
With a variety of programming interfaces and PNP device configuration, automatic cluster programming can be done quicker than the speed of ATE programming generally 5 to 10 times. Again, these programming tool is designed for programming, not to the circuit board or functional test, so they can provide very good quality of programming.
Fine line of PIC devices can be very expensive, so if we can reduce the damage rate in the manufacturing process, will greatly promote the manufacturer's profit and loss balance. Can be applied to most of the components of the automatic programming system is very flexible and can be adapted to the form of advanced packaging device. Due to high productivity, high quality and flexibility together, and leads to the lowest price available programming each device are often less than 20% of the price ATE programming.
Select programming strategy
Production department head will often consider adopting different means of programming, they will ask: "what programming is the most suitable for me?" No one can meet all the application examples of the answer. They weigh generally include: the content of the solutions adopted by the use of production efficiency, production line of the schedule, the price of the PCB, process control, defects, supplier management, main equipment and the cost of inventory management will impact.
On the impact of the production efficiency
ATE programming can reduce the production efficiency, it is because in order to satisfy the need of programming, to increase the extra time. If, for example, in order to check the defects in the manufacturing process, testing costs 15 seconds, you may need to add 5 seconds to the component programming. ATE play a role like a stand-up programmer is very expensive. Also, for programming the high density of flash memory device costs a long time and logic devices needed for the total test time will be longer, this headache. So when programming time compared with the circuit board general test time of time is very little, ATE programming is one of the best cost performance. In order to improve the productivity, to the longer programming time reduced to a minimum, ATE programming technology can be used in conjunction with plate technology, for example: boundary scan or has a patent in many ways, a.
And there's a solution in PCB test, only the boot code programming processing to the target device. Device, the rest of the programming work in does not affect productivity, only when in general is a functional test of the device. However, unless exceeds the capability of the ATE, functional test capacity is enough, for high density device performance is the best programming method is a kind of automatic programming equipment. For example: ProMaster 970 device configuration has 12 interface, an hour to 600 8 million flash programming and laser marking. In contrast, ATE or functional tester will spend 60 to 120 hours to finish the programming work.
Production line using plan
Because electronic products become more and more complicated and advanced, with more and more high-density programmable components will become more and more high demand. These advanced components in the environment of OBP, programming requirement often spends a long time, so it reduces the production efficiency directly.
Also, by different semiconductor device manufacturers provided by the components of the same density, at the time of programming the second time difference is very big, generally has the fastest speed of programming components, the price is also the most expensive. So people are considering whether to pay more money to have fast programming ability of components, facing the dilemma of choice is to improve productivity and reduce the cost of equipment, or adopting a slower time of cheap components, and thus suffer lower productivity.
In addition, manufacturers must remember, in order to be able to deal with appear a large number of product demand in the short term, they can not rely on the most applicable semiconductor devices. Lack of can get the best components, forcing manufacturers to choose alternative programming components, each component has a different programming time, price and availability. For OBP, this kind of situation for the efficient production line schedule is obviously quite difficult.
Because the automatic programming has advantages than single interface OBP solution quickly, so the impact on the programming time change can be completely disregard. Again, because of automatic programming schemes generally support comes from the different suppliers of thousands of components, can alleviate the problem of using alternative components.
The cost of the PCB
For advanced PIC has a remarkable increase of programming and testing requirements. This is because the chip suppliers use the new silicon technology to create the highest speed and performance of components. Careful programming must be the effectiveness of the transmission line into consideration, the impedance of the signal, the insertion of the needle, and the characteristics of the components. If not, the problem may be a barrage of, including: the ground reflection (ground bounce), cross and signal reflection occur during programming.
Automation equipment through good design, high quality programming of these problems can be reduced to the smallest degree. In order to be able to ATE programming, PCB designer must deal with peripheral circuit, capacitor, resistor and inductor, signal cross, Vcc &gnd reflection, and the needle plate fixture. All this will greatly affect the yield and quality of programming. Because of the increased demands for circuit board space, and discrete component (lug, FET, capacitor) and increase the demand for power supply capacity, and ultimately increase the cost of PCB. Although each piece of circuit board is different, the price of the PCB are generally increased by 2% to 10%.
The choice of programming rules system
Many electronics manufacturers have not realized the flash, CPLD and FPGA devices still require the use of programming rules system (programming algorithms. Each component is different in different programming rules cannot be exchanged between semiconductor suppliers. So, if they ATE programming approach is used, the test engineer must for each components and all the alternative suppliers (existing and development) write programming rules system.
If use the incorrect rule system will cause during the programming or circuit board testing, as well as when a user has the product fail (this is the worst in all cases). The most difficult to deal with the thing is, the semiconductor suppliers in order to be able to increase production, increase data saving and reduce manufacturing costs, often change the rules of programming. So even today written program rules system is correct, probably soon will change the rules. In addition, both ATE suppliers, and semiconductor supplier when there is a change when the rules system will not timely contact with the user.
Process management and problem solving
Based on ATE to the completion of the programming work requires people to learn more about programming the hardware and software, and can be used for programming the components of the professional knowledge. In order to be able to create programming rules, the right test engineer must carefully understand the PIC programming, eliminate rules system and verify the knowledge of the rules system. But unfortunately, the general is beyond the scope of the test engineer professional knowledge scope, an error will recruit to catastrophic loss.
Test engineers of the programming problems involved, there must also be timely understanding, such as: components of the price and availability, the density of the additional components, test, defect rate, field failure rate, and keep regular communication with semiconductor suppliers.
Again, because of the semiconductor suppliers or ATE suppliers will not be responsible for the result of the programming, all the responsibility to solve the problem of the programming device completely fall on the shoulders of the test engineer.
For example, if the failure is because of the sudden increase, amount of programmable test engineer must first determine the root cause of the problem, and then set out to solve this problem. If this problem is caused by components of the problem, due to the ATE software programming, the PCB design, or is caused by the test fixture?
These complex problems may need to spend a few weeks time to decompose and solved, at the same time the production line can only pauses on standby.
In contrast, in a leading position in the field of device programming company directly with semiconductor suppliers work together, to solve the problems in the programming device, equipment or own design, so to be able to quickly identify the root cause of the problem.
productivity
A well-designed programming optimization can provide a programming environment, and to ensure the greatest possible production. However, there is a very small proportion of the device in the process of programming will be invalid. The proportion between different semiconductor supplier is different, the scope for programming productivity will be between 99.3% and 99.8%. Automated programming device is designed to be able to identify these defects, and then to assemble the PCB before you can capture from the failure of the components, so as to realize the defect rate to reduce to the smallest. Through the comparison, the failure rate of programming generally higher than in ATE programming environment.
For the manufacturer if they could be found that the problem in advance, can reduce costs in the long term business. Programming device can not only have low PIC failure rate, they designed can also be found defective PIC programming device. In the real environment as the target of PIC device by into in the design of PCB, designed to play another role (telephone, fax, scanner, etc.), as a kind of special programming device can simply to do these things, without having to provide the same quality of the programming environment.
The supplier's management
ATE programming potential may be locking a programmable components suppliers. Because ATE requires careful PCB design, as well as to be able to meet each of the different PIC use need special software, then formed by the components change effort will be very costly, and it's time at the same time. Through a series of agreements of intellectual property rights, can make several semiconductor suppliers work together, thus forming a kind of programmable devices.
Provided by IEEE 1149.1 boundary scan programming method has a lot of flexibility, it allows the mixed loading on the same PCB components provided by different semiconductor suppliers. However, automatic programming equipment can maximum flexibility to do these things. With the help of the obtained from different vendors thousands of conventional PIC components support, they can be very flexible to keep the same pace with changes in the needs of customers.
The cost of the main equipment
Depending on the percentage of using ATE and requirement for productivity, in order to achieve the PIC programming may request to add ATE equipment. About ATE prices ranging from $150000 to $400000, to purchase a new device or update existing equipment to make it suitable for the need of programming is very expensive. One way is to use a AP device to provide programming components to the production lines. This approach can reduce the utilization of ATE, reducing equipment investment.
conclusion
By choosing the right equipment and select the most effective way of programming to meet specific application requirements, manufacturers can achieve high quality and low cost and shorten the time of the product into the market, to adapt to the now intense market competition situation. However, let's have a look at all the different ways of programming, each kind of programming methods have advantages and disadvantages, so for us to choose the programming method can be a very headache.
More and more manufacturers will need to evaluate different programming solutions for the planning and scheduling in production efficiency, production line, the price of the PCB, process control, customer management, and some of the impact of the price of main equipment, etc. The most comprehensive solution might be a kind of comprehensive automation programming, ATE, and the combination of IEEE boundary scan programming method.
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